BANKING TIME:

Investing in Relationships between Children and Teachers

Robert C. Pianta, Ph.D.

Bridget K. Hamre, M.Ed.

University of Virginia

All correspondence should be sent to the first author at: NICHD Study of Early Child Care & Youth Development, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800784, Charlottesville, VA 22904-8784; Phone: 804.243.5483; Fax: 804.243.5480;

E-mail: rcp4p@virginia.edu.

 


CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Conceptual Background

Relationships between Children and Adults

Adult-Child Relationship Processes and Schooling

Why Do Relationships with Adults Affect Child Development?

Relationships are dyadic systems.

Features of individuals in relationships.

Feedback processes.

External influences.

Relationships and Child Development

Looking Ahead

CHAPTER 2: Assessment: Identifying Resources

Assessing Teacher-Child Relationships: The Child's View

Semi-structured interviews.

Play interviews.

Questionnaires.

Assessing Teacher-Child Relationships: The Teacher's View

Teacher Relationship Interview.

The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale.

Observations of Teacher-Child Relationships

General classroom observation systems.

Summary

Assessment Scenarios

Scenario 1:

Scenario 2

Scenario 3
 

CHAPTER 3: Introducing New Frameworks For Understanding Relationships

Gaining Access to the Teacher's Representations

Promoting Change in the Teacher's Representations

Narrating and Labeling the Teacher's Representations

Hypothesizing Alternatives

Summary

CHAPTER 4: Banking Time Consultation

Section One: Introducing Banking Time to the Teacher and Child

STEP 1: Review Information Gathered during Assessment

STEP 2: Review Banking Time Video

STEP 3: Principles for Introducing Banking Time to the Child

Section Two: Implementing Banking Time

STEP 1: Scheduling Banking Time

Choosing a day and time.

Identifying an appropriate setting.

Selecting activities and materials.

Summary.

STEP 2: Banking Time Basics

Observation.

Narration.

Labeling.

Creating relational themes.

Ending the session.

Summary.

STEP 3: Follow-up Consultation

"It sounds like a great idea, but I just don't have time for this."

"The child keeps choosing inappropriate activities or can't make up her mind about what to do."

"Other students want to join in and frequently interrupt Banking Time."

"The child keeps misbehaving during our sessions."

"He's been getting in trouble all day and I just can't see how giving him reinforcement for his behavior will help in the long run."

"I give her warnings about the end of the session, but every time she gets angry and refuses to go back to the classroom."

"How do I know when it's OK to stop Banking Time sessions?"

Summary.

Section Three: Banking Time with Classrooms!

Extending Banking Time into Daily Interactions

Relational Messages

Consistency

Acceptance

Availability

Creating Banking Time Groups

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A:  ASSESSMENT MATERIALS

Gaining the Child's Perspective on Relationships with Teachers:A Semi-Structured Interview

Interview Questions

Conducting a Play Interview

Gaining the Teacher's Perspective:

Teacher Relationsip Interview

Relationship with Child

STRS

STRS-Short Form

Scoring and Interpreting the STRS

STRS Scoring Sheet

Calculating the Child's Scale Scores

Original

Items

Comparing Child's Scale Scores to Teacher's Average

STRS-Short Form Scoring Sheet

Calculating the Child's Scale Scores

Original

Items

Conducting Classroom Observations

Teacher/Classroom Constructs

Dyadic Behaviors

Observation Notes and Scoring Sheet

APPENDIX B: CONSULTATION WORKSHEETS AND TEACHER HANDOUTS

Using Videotape to Access Representations

Identifying a difficult situation:

Labeling feeling and thoughts:

Considering alternatives:

Identifying a good situation:

Labeling feeling and thoughts:

Discussing differences:

Identifying and Promoting Change in Relational Patterns

Scheduling Banking Time Sessions

Scheduling Suggestions

Choosing a day and time

Choosing a setting

Choosing possible activities/materials

Banking Time: Basics for the Consultant

Observation

Narration

Labeling

Developing Relational Themes

Weaving Relationship Themes into Interactions with Children . . .

Banking Time Log

Teacher Banking Time Feedback

APPENDIX C:  SELECTED STRS BIBLIOGRAPHY

STRS Bibliography